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Schengen – cea mai ieftină „autostradă” pentru România. Interviu cu fostul ministru de externe Teodor Baconschi

By Vîrban Robert , in Interviuri Stirile zilei , at 13 martie 2022

România și-a asumat pentru următorii ani investiții de miliarde euro, din fonduri europene și de la bugetul de stat, pentru dezvoltarea rețelei de autostrăzi. Pe lângă creșterea siguranței rutiere, unul dintre obiectivele principale ale acestor proiecte este reducerea duratei de parcurs, fapt ce ar reprezenta un avantaj competiv pentru firmele din țara noastră care doresc să atace piețele din vestul Europei. Reducerea timpilor de parcurs se poate realiza însă și printr-o altă cale – aderarea la spațiul Schengen. 

Spațiul Schenghen reprezintă o zona de liberă circulație în Europa, ce include 26 de țări – 22 din Uniunea Europeană și patru din afara acesteia -, în interiorul căreia nu există controale de frontieră. Practic, dacă România ar adera la acest spațiu, timpii de zeci sau chiar sute de minute petrecuți de șoferi la punctele de trecere cu Ungaria ar deveni istorie.

În acest context, am discutat cu fostul ministru al afacerilor externe Teodor Baconschi pentru a afla mai multe despre stadiul în care se află procesul de aderare a României la spațiul Schengen, una dintre obligațiile asumate prin tratatul de aderare la UE, care sunt principalele impedimente în acet moment, dar și ce ar însemna pentru România acest pas.

Interviul acordat de Teodor Baconschi

MN: În ce stadiu se află România în acest moment în privința procesului de aderare la spațiul Schengen?

TB: România a implementat de peste un deceniu toate standardele tehnice, de infrastructură vamală, compatibile cu funcționarea unui stat-membru în aria Schengen. Au fost inspecții succesive care au certificat starea de fapt. În 2011, se schițase un calendar de aderare treptată. Am fi început cu frontierele aeriene, urmând apoi deschiderea la nivel terestru și maritim. Procesul are însă și o componentă politică, pe care nu o putem ignora. Din cauza frontierelor româno-bulgare pe Dunăre, e nevoie și de primirea celor două state candidate în tandem.

MN: Cine se opune în UE aderării noastre la Schengen?

TB: În Consiliul JAI, e nevoie de votul tuturor statelor-membre pentru extinderea spațiului Schengen. Au existat opoziții, de pildă din partea Olandei.

MN: Care sunt motivele pentru care aceste state se opun?

TB: Principala obiecție privește faptul că România se află încă sub Mecanismul de Cooperare și Verificare. Menținerea MCV implică nerealizarea tuturor standardelor privind combaterea corupției. Dacă traficul organizațiilor criminale (imigrație ilegală, droguri, arme etc) din afara UE nu este strict controlat la frontierele României, nu putem convinge statele sceptice că suntem pe deplin pregătiți.

MN: Dincolo de declarațiile publice, au oficialii acestor state o agendă ascunsă?

TB: Nu există nicio agendă ascunsă. Conexiunile de tip conspiraționist – „Olanda se opune, pentru că portul Constanța ar concura Rotterdam” – sunt complet neîntemeiate.

MN: S-ar fi putut face mai mult la nivel diplomatic?

TB: Diplomații români – ca și miniștrii noștri de Externe – au ținut tema Schengen cât mai sus pe agendă, atât în dialogul cu Comisia Europeană, cât și la nivel bilateral. Vă spuneam însă că sediul materiei este în Consiliul Justiție și Afaceri Interne. Apartenența implică și cooperarea transfrontalieră între Polițiile din SM, coordonarea în materie de extrădare rapidă și aplicarea diverselor hotărâri judecătorești, prin așa-numitul Schengen Information System. Prin urmare, MAE are nevoie în proces de suportul MAI și MJ.

MN: Care sunt principalele beneficii ale aderării la Schengen? Există și dezavantaje?

TB: Schengen, ca și intrarea în Eurozonă, reprezintă un obiectiv de politică externă major, pentru că e de natură să aprofundeze integrarea europeană a României. Impactul ar fi pozitiv, pentru că ar scurta, cu beneficii economice masive, timpii de transport pentru persoane și mărfuri, în toată aria Schengen, care este principalul instrument UE de implementare a libertății de mișcare. Din această arie fac de altfel parte și state non-UE, precum Norvegia, Elveția, Liechtenstein și Islanda. N-ar fi exclus ca actualul război provocat de Rusia în Ucraina să accelereze și procesul de aderare la Schengen, dacă MCV va fi ridicat. Inerția unor poziții sceptice nu se mai justifică în aceste timpuri excepționale, când solidaritatea europeană trebuie dovedită pe toate planurile, fără tergiversări politicianiste sau pretexte birocratice. Încă din 2020, comisarul pentru Afaceri Interne Johansson a spus că UE vrea să vadă cât mai curând România, Bulgaria și Croația în aria Schengen.

Sursa foto: Facebook / Asociația Pro Infrastructură

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